In the context of an unstable global economy, three of the principal polluting nations China, India and the United States have, up to now, been reluctant to ratify any binding agreement on climate change. Consequently, it has been difficult for the European Union to commit to an ambitious environmental strategy without risking the competitiveness of European companies. How do we reconcile economic competitiveness with environmental protection? Is it reasonable to expect an evolution in the positions of the main polluting nations? During the next decades, these issues will play an important role in the regulation of globalization.The Fondation pour l’innovation politique’s work has analysed the European, American, Chinese and Indian stances, in order to outline a European strategy reconciling environmental protection with economic competitivness.