What can be done to ensure that European companies can compete fairly on the global stage against foreign companies, particularly Chinese ones, which are suspected to be heavily subsidised? The European Union already has operational tools at its disposal that are compatible with the rules of the World Organization (WTO): the trade defence instruments. They allow the Union to fight against foreign anti-competitive practices through the imposition of customs duties on its borders. However, Member States are historically divided on the relevance of these instruments. Consequently, the European Union appears less protected than the United States against hostile strategies from foreign countries or companies.

This study was written by Emmanuel Combe, Professor at the University of Paris-1 and Professor at Skema Business School and Vice-President of the Competition Authority*, Paul-Adrien Hyppolite, Corps des Mines engineer and graduate of the École normale supérieure*, and Antoine Michon, Corps des Mines engineer and graduate of the École Polytechnique*.

* The authors of this study are responsible for its content, which does not hold responsible the institutions for which they work. This document is a translation of the French version published in November 2019.