The idea of democracy has revolutionized the world. It is based on a political order whose main feature is making the exercise of power subject to the consent of the governed. It spread across Europe in the 19th century, powering nations with the emancipating force of the peoples’ right to self-determination. During the 20th century it triumphed over modern tyrannies, repelling fascist regimes, the Nazis and their allies, then defeating Communism after a Cold War that ended with the collapse of the USSR.

However, as we enter the 21st century, the horizon looks darker. It is in this new and troubled context that we wanted to bring together our two institutions: on the one hand, the Fondation pour l’innovation politique, a French think tank committed to defending the values of freedom and progress and the ideals of the European Union; on the other, the International Republican Institute, an American think tank that promotes democracy worldwide. The results of this international study, carried out in forty-two democracies, are presented here under the title Democracies under pressure.

The 2nd volume is dedicated to the forty-two countries of the survey, offering a fact sheet for each that summarizes the state of national public opinion:

Albania • Australia • Austria • Belgium • Bosnia and Herzegovina • Brazil • Bulgaria • Canada • Croatia • Cyprus • Czech Republic • Denmark • Estonia • Finland • France • Germany • Greece • Hungary • Ireland • Israel • Italy • Japan • Latvia • Lithuania • Luxembourg • Malta • Netherlands • New Zealand • North Macedonia • Norway • Poland • Portugal • Romania • Serbia • Slovakia • Slovenia • Spain • Sweden • Switzerland • Ukraine • United Kingdom • United Sates 

We also present the reader with an “Index of Democratic Culture” that makes it possible to rank each country in relation to the others.

The data is available, in all 33 languages of the survey, as open data on