Summary

Young people and our future

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Summary

ScénaRio2012 the first worldwide survey on youth and sustainable development, arose from the common intention of the Fondation pour l’innovation politique and Nomadéis to bring an innovative contribution to the United Nations conference on sustainable development that is taking place in Rio de Janeiro from the 20th to the 22nd of June 2012.

The span of the survey is unprecedented. The TNS opinion institute interviewed 30 000 young people, aged 16 to 29, coming from 30 different countries across the five continents: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Madagascar, Morocco, Mexico, Nigeria, Norway, Poland, Russia, Senegal, Spain, Sweden, South Africa, South Korea, turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States.

This survey, which has received the support of the United Nations, allows to portray the world’s youth through its relationship to sustainable development: its choices, its aspirations, its fears, its perception of globalization and its values.

ScenaRio2012, première enquête mondiale sur les jeunes et le développement durable, est né de la volonté commune de la Fondation pour l’innovation politique et de Nomadéis d’apporter une contribution innovante à la Conférence des Nations Unies sur le développement durable qui se déroule à Rio de Janeiro du 20 au 22 juin 2012.

La dimension de cette enquête est inédite. L’institut TNS Opinion a interrogé 30 000 jeunes, âgés de 16 à 29 ans, issus de 30 pays sur 5 continents : Afrique du Sud, Allemagne, Australie, Brésil, Canada, Chili, Chine, Corée du Sud, Équateur, Espagne, États-Unis, Finlande, France, Inde, Indonésie, Israël, Italie, Japon, Kenya, Madagascar, Maroc, Mexique, Nigéria, Norvège, Pologne, Royaume-Uni, Russie, Sénégal, Suède, Turquie.

Cette enquête, qui a reçu l’appui des Nations Unies, nous permet de dresser un portrait de la jeunesse mondiale sous l’angle de son rapport au développement durable : ses choix, ses aspirations, ses craintes, sa perception de la mondialisation et ses valeurs.

Young people and our future

Notes

1.

June 11th: “Youth Blast”, the official youth conference for Rio+20 organised by the UNCSD Major Group for Children and Youth (MGCY); June 19th: Reception in presence of H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco, patron of the ScenaRio 2012 Project; June 20th: official meeting organised at the Riocentro convention centre in partnership with the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR).

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The June 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD, Rio+20) will constitute a milestone in the international agenda.  The decisions that will be taken there with respect    to  the  green  economy,  eradication  of   poverty   and governance of sustainable development will continue to commit all the stakeholders (states, local communities, businesses, NGOs,  individuals,  etc.)  to following a path that leads towards progress that    is more respectful of the great balances between environmental, economic and social factors.

The globalisation movement is unprecedented and has coincided with a similarly unmatched phenomenon of urbanisation. As of today, half of the world’s people live in towns and cities. Planetary urbanization presents new challenges to the environment, while offering at the same time a promising source of solutions. The issue is to identify the conditions in which the world’s population, primarily urban dwellers, can pursue their material development while respecting human dignity and the generations to come.

Twenty years after the first Rio Conference, which gathered more than 100 Heads  of  State  and  was  the origin of conventions on climate change and biodiversity, Rio+20 is the occasion to restate the importance of these issues, to make known the state of global awareness and to reaffirm the need for a universal commitment.

Young people aged between 16 and 29 make up almost a quarter of the world’s population. They are the youth of the planet and as such are a vital part of humankind. What distinguishes the new generation is its acute sense of belonging to a planetary community that shares the same fate. More than a billion people, mostly young, use social media and make a major contribution to ensuring that every crisis, whether social, economic or environmental, becomes a topic of worldwide discussion.

With the opening of Rio+20 it is therefore essential  to shed fresh light on the expectations of the world’s youth with respect of sustainable development. For this purpose, Nomadéis and Fondapol joined forces to create ScenaRio 2012 to carry out the first worldwide survey making it possible to listen to the voice of young people with regard to sustainable development.

We were delighted to be sponsored by the United Nations and a range of partners, institutions, corporations and foundations. The survey was conducted on an unprecedented scale. We collected the views of 30.000 young people aged between 16 and 29 from 30 different countries on five continents.

At the same time we asked 100 prominent people with  an  intellectual  or   professional   commitment at the global level to let us share their vision of the issues linking the environment, development and governance with a view to preparing the ground together for the Rio+20 Conference.

Young people have a full understanding of today’s world; they know how to identify  what  promises  and opportunities it holds. They advocate  for  an ideal world but they do not live outside present day realities: access to education, housing, jobs,  water and energy services, etc. Aware that tensions over the environment are often the product of a clash between the ideal world and reality, they express their wish for increased protection of natural resources while supporting a vision of human reality that places greater emphasis on quality and rejects the idea that progress is simply a matter of economic growth or technological innovation.

The world’s youth wish to  experience  the  benefits of development in its multiple forms. This implies taking into account territorial, political and cultural specificities.

This publication, to be presented at the Rio+20 Conference on the occasion of a number of official events organised with our United Nations partners¹, suggests a number of paths to be explored. It seeks in particular to initiate a dialogue between generations, highlighting the views expressed by young  people and backing them up with quotations from interviews conducted with 100 prominent people who have rallied around our  cause  and  actively  participated in our initiative. This study is published in five languages and demonstrates our determination to promote thought and discussion not only at a global level but also in the setting of the new world. It will be expanded in a more developed publication that we will produce before the end of the year.

Young people and sustainable development? It’s hard to imagine a more fundamental issue.

The ScenaRio 2012 project was created and produced by Nomadéis and Fondation pour l’innovation politique in the hope that we could make a lasting contribution from a planetary civil society to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20). We asked TNS opinion to survey over 30,000 individuals, aged 16 to 29, in 30 different countries. Surveys were taken on the basis of national samples consisting of approximately 1,000 individuals. The questionnaire was translated into the official language  of  each  of the respective countries, 21 languages in total. Data collection was performed within a limited time frame of seven weeks in order to limit short-term seasonal variations (between February 24 and April 9, 2012).

Considering the economic disparity among the countries, specifically regarding access to the Internet, data were collected in two different ways. In 25 countries, the survey was carried out via an electronic questionnaire, whereas in the remaining five ones (Ecuador, Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria and Senegal) face-to-face interviews were conducted, a method ensuring greater social diversity among the respondents.

Aware of the bias inherent in each collection method, we decided to present in this publication the data collected face-to-face separately from those collected electronically. Each of the three chapters will therefore encompass an insert devoted  to  the  answers  given  by the individuals from the five countries mentioned above, while the online data will be presented in the body of the publication.

The objective of the study was to piece together representative samples in terms of age, gender or geographic region in each country. However, we must admit that the samples taken in emerging countries mainly represent a wealthier segment of the population. This particularly applies to the young people who took the survey online. In these countries the respondents are more likely to belong to the social classes that have the most contact with globalisation.

The survey investigates questions of opinion and intention rather than behavior. To compare behavioral patterns of the respondents would imply to take infrastructure and environmental policies into account, which vary a great deal from one country to the next. Most of the questions required that the interviewees answer according to a scale consisting of four levels: “totally agree”, “tend to agree”, “tend to disagree”, “totally disagree” (for example, to define a level of agreement). In this document, we present the results that merge the “totally agree” and “tend to agree” answers or the “tend to disagree” and “totally disagree” answers. In other cases, the interviewees were allowed to choose between two or three different responses. For example, we asked them if they  believed  it possible to combine material progress and environmental protection and gave them a choice between a simple “yes” or “no”. Finally, in some questions, participants were able to choose several options and could rank their preferences in terms of their first choice and their second choice. For the sake of brevity, the results, at this stage in the analysis, are presented as a percentage of the respondents who chose any particular response, without differentiating between first and second choices. For multiple choice questions, the reader should not be alarmed if the sum of the percentages exceeds 100.

As the goal of this publication, prepared for the Rio+20 Conference, was to present the most significant findings from the ScenaRio 2012 study, the key messages are discussed summarily. The salient points are illustrated with graphs and charts as well as a series of thematic and geographic inserts. The graphs demonstrate the differences between countries; the data they present correspond to either one response among the different available options or a set of responses with similar tendencies, for example “totally agree” and “tend to agree”. For the purpose of clarity, these only show the results gathered online, the data collected through face- to-face interviews appear in the inserts as mentioned above. Even though the text of this paper has been published in five languages (Arabic, Chinese, English, French and Portuguese) the chart titles will only appear in English because of technical formatting constraints. Furthermore, the graphs do not provide country names in order to avoid unnecessary clutter in the illustrations, but the cover of this document has a flap with a reference guide to the flags appearing in the graphs.

Finally, this summary presentation containing the preliminary findings of the quantitative survey has  been supplemented and enhanced by quotations taken from interviews with the  100  personalities  making  up ScenaRio 2012’s special panel. This panel brings together  prominent  representatives  of   ten   spheres of influence: politics, academia, media, business, nonprofit, creation & art, sports, intercultural dialogue, youth empowerment and the United Nations.  The panel was structured according to two guiding principles, male-female parity and geographic balance. The interviews took place either in person or via telephone and e-mail and focused on eight questions regarding the importance of sustainable development. These participants were also encouraged to share their message with young people the world over in the form of a tweet. The complete list of personalities who took part in ScenaRio 2012 as well as each of their messages appear at the end of this publication.

Grazyna MARCINKOWSKA – Research Coordinator at Fondapol.

Les jeunes du monde se considèrent bien informés sur l’état de l’environnement : seule la jeunesse japonaise s’estime majoritairement (66%) mal informée. On peut voir dans cette exception les conséquences de la catastrophe de Fukushima qui, par l’effet de surprise, a pu conduire les Japonais à douter de l’information mise à leur disposition en la matière.

Informés, les répondants jugent que l’état de l’environnement dans le monde est mauvais : c’est le cas par exemple des Chiliens (90%), des Sud-Coréens (79%) ou des Australiens (67%). À l’inverse, l’état de l’environnement est estimé bon par les Indiens (63%), les Chinois (53%) et les Indonésiens (53%). En revanche, tous les répondants s’accordent sur le fait que l’environnement est plus menacé aujourd’hui qu’il ne l’était il y a vingt ans : les niveaux d’adhésion à cette opinion se situent entre 85% (pour les Finlandais) et 97% (pour les Marocains). Enfin, peu de jeunes contestent la réalité de la dégradation de l’environnement : les plus sceptiques, les Norvégiens, ne sont que 18% à dire qu’elle a été surestimée.

Os jovens em todo o mundo  consideram-se  bem informados sobre a situação do meio ambiente: apenas no Japão é que os jovens consideram-se majoritariamente (66%) mal informados. Esta exceção pode ser reflexo das consequências da catástrofe de Fukushima, que, por conta do elemento surpresa, levaria os japoneses a duvidar das informações que lhes são divulgadas no que diz respeito a esse tema. Informados, os entrevistados julgam que a situação do meio ambiente no mundo é ruim:    é o caso, por exemplo, dos chilenos (90%), dos sul-coreanos (79%) ou dos australianos (67%). Inversamente, a situação do meio ambiente é considerada boa pelos indianos (63%), pelos chineses (53%) e pelos indonésios (53%). No entanto, todos os entrevistados concordam que o meio ambiente encontra-se mais ameaçado hoje do que há 20 anos, os níveis de adesão       a esta opção situando-se entre 85% (para os finlandeses) e 97% (para os marroquinos). Por fim, poucos jovens contestam a realidade da degradação do meio ambiente: apenas 18% deles, os mais cépticos (os noruegueses) dizem que ela foi superestimada.

On the whole, the youth of the world consider themselves to be well-informed about the current state of the environment: only the majority of Japanese young people (66%) consider themselves to be ill- informed. This exception could be viewed  in  light  of the Fukushima catastrophe, which took Japan by surprise and could lead Japanese people to doubt the information that they had been given in that matter.

Considering themselves well-informed, the respondents believe that the environment is in a bad state: this is the case, for example, for Chileans (90%), South Koreans (79%) and Australians (67%). On the opposite end of the spectrum are Indians (63%), the Chinese (53%) and Indonesians (53%) who consider the environment  to be in good shape. However, all the respondents agree that the environment is under greater threat today than it was twenty years ago: this opinion is shared by the vast majority of the interviewees, between 85% (for Finns) and 97% (for Moroccans). Finally, very few young people dispute the fact that the environment is getting worse: the most skeptical  being  Norwegians, of whom only 18% say that this degradation has been overestimated.

While the world’s  youth has no doubt regarding the degradation of the environment, climate change is more open    to debate. 50% of Russians, 43% of Poles, 36% of Americans and 34% of both the British and Norwegians believe global warming to be a false or exaggerated problem. Perhaps this can be explained because it is easier to deny the existence of a phenomenon when one does not feel the direct consequences thereof.

This does not change the fact that climate change is viewed as one of the principal threats to society. Global warming ranks only after poverty and famine, war and terrorism and is considered more pressing than the failure of international finance system or the spread of diseases. Koreans (44%) and Swedes (39%) are most sensitive to climate change.  In the developed world, most of the youth do not feel personally threatened by global warming. This is the case for Germans (55%), Israelis (55%) and Swedes (61%). However, they are still fearful of its effects on future generations. In developing countries, on the other hand, the largest number of survey participants (from 46% in South Africa up  to 62% in Indonesia) state that they are not only fearful of the effects of climate change on their children but also of the effects that they themselves may endure.

Quando a questão é refletir sobre os efeitos da degradação do meio ambiente, a juventude em todo o mundo exprime-se mais preocupada com a alteração do patrimônio natural do que com a deterioração da saúde e o desenvolvimento das doenças: é o caso de 58% dos espanhóis e de 78% dos brasileiros. Os jovens chineses e os japoneses são os únicos a chamar mais atenção às consequências sobre a saúde humana (respectivamente 54% e 51%). A opinião dos jovens russos está perfeitamente dividida ao meio (50%). Esses resultados vêm ao encontro do descontentamento dos jovens no que diz respeito à sua saúde, descontentamento este particularmente elevado na China (43%), no Japão (42%) e na Rússia (46%).

When asked to consider the effects of environmental degradation, the youth of the world expresses more concern regarding the alteration of the earth’s natural heritage than for the deterioration of  human  health and the spread of diseases: this is this  case  for 58%  of Spaniards and 78% of Brazilians. Chinese and Japanese youth are the only populations to emphasize the impacts on humans rather than on  nature  (54% and 51% respectively). The Russian youth is split on the issue (50%). These figures are telling when taken together with the discontent among the world’s youth regarding their health. The numbers are particularly high in China (43%), Japan (42%) and Russia (46%).

Lorsqu’il s’agit de réfléchir sur les effets de la dégradation de l’environnement, la jeunesse du monde exprime une préoccupation pour l’altération du patrimoine naturel plus grande que pour la détérioration de la santé et le développement des maladies : c’est le cas de 58% des Espagnols comme de 78% des Brésiliens. Les jeunesses chinoise et japonaise sont les seules à souligner davantage les conséquences sur la santé humaine (respectivement 54% et 51%). La jeunesse russe est partagée (50%). Ces résultats rejoignent le mécontentement des jeunes en ce qui concerne leur santé. Il est particulièrement élevé en Chine (43%), au Japon (42%) et en Russie (46%).

Dans la majorité des pays, les jeunes estiment que le bien-être animal n’est pas suffisamment pris en compte. C’est particulièrement le cas des Russes (83%), des Coréens (82%) et des Brésiliens (82%). D’autres jeunesses font exception, en estimant que le bien-être animal est suffisamment pris en compte dans leur pays : les Britanniques (62%), les Australiens (61%), les Canadiens (57%), les Finlandais (58%) et les Allemands (53%). Toutefois, ces résultats ne nous permettent pas de savoir si ces réponses traduisent un désintérêt pour la cause animale ou, bien différemment, l’existence dans ces pays d’une meilleure prise en compte du bien-être animal.

Sensibles à l’importance du bien-être animal, les jeunes ne vont cependant pas jusqu’à remettre en cause la consommation de viande ou de poisson, à l’exception d’une minorité d’entre eux, comme, par exemple, 10% des Américains, 14% des Brésiliens et 15% des Sud-Africains ou encore 16% des Allemands. Notons que les jeunes Indiens se distinguent sur ce point : 34% d’entre eux estiment en effet que la consommation de viande ou de poisson leur pose problème au motif que cela fait souffrir les animaux.

Na maioria dos países, os jovens estimam que   o bem-estar dos animais não é suficientemente levado em conta. É o caso, em especial, dos russos (83%), dos coreanos (82%) e dos brasileiros (82%). Já outros jovens são exceção e estimam que o bem-estar dos animais é suficientemente levado em conta nos seus respectivos países: britânicos (62%), australianos (61%), canadenses (57%), finlandeses (58%) e alemães (53%). Entretanto, esses resultados não nos permitem saber se essas respostas traduzem um desinteresse pela causa animal ou, bem ao contrário, a existência nesses países de uma consciência mais aguçada em prol do bem-estar dos animais.

Os jovens sensibilizam-se com a importância do bem-estar dos animais, mas nem por isso chegam a questionar o consumo de carne ou de peixe, exceção feita a uma minoria, como, por exemplo, 10% dos americanos, 14% dos brasileiros e 15% dos sul-africanos ou ainda 16% dos alemães. É digno de nota que os jovens indianos distinguem-se neste aspecto: 34% deles de fato estimam que o consumo de carne ou de peixe representa para eles um problema, uma vez que isso causa sofrimento aos animais.

In the majority of the participating countries, young people believe that animal rights are not taken seriously enough. This is particularly the case in Russia (83%), Korea (82%) and Brazil (82%). Other populations appear to be an exception to the general rule in that they believe that animal welfare is properly  taken into account in their countries: the British (62%), Australians (61%), Canadians (57%), Finns (58%) and Germans (53%). However, these results do not demonstrate whether the answers are premised upon indifference for animal rights or, conversely, that the country has effective measures in place with regard to animal welfare.

Though highly aware of the importance of animal welfare, young people do not go so far as to question eating meat and fish, except for a small  minority, such as, for example, 10% of Americans, 14% of Brazilians, 15% of South Africans and up to 16% of Germans. It should be noted that young Indians stand out in this regard with 34% indicating that eating meat or fish is a problem for them because it leads to animals suffering.

What is environmental protection?

Young people most often associate environmental protection with the fight against air and  water  pollution.  Russians (91%) and Poles (84%) are the most likely to think of anti-pollution legislation when they are asked about environmental protection. The fight against global warming is the second most important issue associated with care for the ecosystem. Swedes (71%) and Indians (66%) mention this problem the most. The young people of Latin America are more likely to associate nature conservation with the preservation of biodiversity (as is the case for 73% of Brazilians, 66% of Mexicans and 62% of Chileans), whereas protection of animals is quoted by 59% of Russians and 54% of South Africans. Finally, environmental protection is associated with quality of life by 63% of Moroccans and 60% of Chileans.

À l’exception des Équatoriens, très préoccupés par la protection de la nature, les jeunesses interrogées en face-à-face semblent être indécises quant à l’importance de l’enjeu environnemental. D’une part, 20% des Kényans, 19% des Nigérians, 16% des Malgaches et 13% des Sénégalais (contre seulement 5% des Équatoriens) déclarent que la dégradation de l’environnement a été surestimée ces dernières années ; 13% des Malgaches considèrent que le réchauffement climatique est un faux problème et 23% que ce problème a été exagéré. D’autre part, une majorité des Malgaches (55%), des Kényans (54%), des Sénégalais (51%), ainsi qu’un tiers des Nigérians (33%) redoutent le changement climatique pour eux- mêmes. Il en va de même pour 62% des Équatoriens. La plupart des Malgaches jugent mauvais l’état de l’environnement tant dans le monde que dans leur pays et là où ils habitent. Les jeunes Équatoriens partagent ce jugement, alors que la majorité des Nigérians, Kényans et Sénégalais estime bon l’état de l’environnement.

Cette ambivalence réside peut-être en partie dans une certaine méconnaissance des sujets environnementaux (un Malgache sur deux se dit mal informé sur ces questions), ou bien dans le caractère secondaire de l’enjeu environnemental dans certains pays africains aux prises avec d’autres difficultés, notamment d’ordre socio-économique. Ainsi, quand on leur demande quelles sont les plus grandes menaces pesant sur la société, le changement climatique arrive loin derrière la pauvreté et la famine, voire le chômage (cité par 68% des Nigérians), les pandémies (citées par 44% des Sénégalais) ou le sida (cité par 48% des Kényans).

 

Com exceção dos equatorianos, muito preocupados com  a  proteção   da   natureza, os jovens entrevistados face a face parecem indecisos quanto à importância da questão ambiental. Por um lado, 20% dos quenianos, 19% dos nigerianos,  16%  dos  malgaches  e 13% dos senegaleses (contra apenas 5% dos equatorianos) declaram que a degradação do meio ambiente foi superestimada nos últimos anos. Dos malgaches,  13 %  consideram que o aquecimento global  é  um  falso  problema e 23% que este problema foi exagerado. Por outro lado, uma maioria de malgaches (55%), de quenianos (54%), de senegaleses (51%), bem como um terço de nigerianos (33%), temem a mudança climática por si próprios. Também é o caso de 62% de equatorianos. A maior parte dos malgaches acha ruim a situação do meio ambiente tanto no mundo quanto no seu país e no lugar em que moram. Os jovens equatorianos são da mesma opinião, ao passo que a maioria dos nigerianos, dos quenianos e dos senegaleses estima que a situação do meio ambiente é boa. Esta ambivalência talvez resida em parte num certo desconhecimento dos assuntos ambientais (um malgache em cada dois considera-se mal informado sobre essas questões) ou  talvez  no caráter secundário da questão ambiental em certos países africanos confrontados com outras dificuldades, notadamente de ordem socioeconômica. Assim, quando inquiridos sobre quais são  as  maiores  ameaças  sobre a sociedade, a mudança climática fica bem para trás da pobreza e da fome, ou mesmo do desemprego (citado por 68% dos nigerianos), das pandemias (citadas por 44% dos senegaleses) ou da AIDS (citada por 48% dos quenianos).

 

With Ecuadorians as the exception, being very concerned about the protection of nature, the young people surveyed seem to be fairly undecided with regard to the importance of the environment. On the one hand, 20% of Kenyans, 19% of Nigerians, 16% of Malagasy and 13% of Senegalese (compared with only 5% of Ecuadorians) consider that environmental degradation has been overestimated over the past few years; 13% of Malagasy deem  global  warming  to be a false problem and 23% feel that the problem has  been exaggerated. On the other hand, a majority of the Malagasy (55%), Kenyans (54%), Senegalese (51%),  as well as a third of Nigerians (33%) are fearful of the effects that climate change will have on them. This is the same for Ecuadorians, 62% of whom are under  this belief. The majority of the Malagasy believe the environment to be in poor condition in their country as well as in the rest of the world. Young Ecuadorians are in agreement with this sentiment while most Nigerian, Kenyan and Senegalese respondents believe the environment to be in good shape.

This ambivalence arises perhaps in part  due to a lack of knowledge regarding environmental subjects (one out of every two Malagasy claims to be ill-informed with regard to these issues), or perhaps  because  of the secondary importance of environmental issues in certain African countries struggling to overcome other difficulties, such as socio-economic problems.  As such, when asked what they consider to be the greatest threat to society, climate change ranks far behind poverty and famine and even unemployment (quoted by 68% of Nigerians), pandemics (mentioned by 44% of Senegalese) and AIDS (quoted by 48% of Kenyans).

 

除非常关心保护自然的厄瓜多尔青年外 , 接 受 面 对 面 调 查 的 年 轻 人 看 起来对环境问题的重要性犹豫不决。一方 面 , 20%的 肯 尼 亚 青 年 , 19%的 尼日利亚青年, 16 %的马达加斯加青年和 13%的塞内加尔青年(于此相比, 只 有 5% 厄 瓜 多 尔 青 年 ) 认 为 环 境 恶化问题在近几年中被夸大; 13%的马达 加 斯 加 青 年 认 为 全 球 暖 化 问 题 不存在, 23 %认为全球暖化问题被夸大了。另一方面,大多数的马达加斯加青年(55%)、 肯尼亚青年(54% )、塞 内 加 尔 青 年 (51% )以 及 三 分 之 一的 尼 日 利 亚 青 年 (33% )担 心 全 球 暖化对他们有影响。这一比例在厄瓜多尔青年中高达 62 %。大多数马达加斯加青年认为全球环境以及他们所居住国家和地区的环境状况糟糕。厄瓜多尔青年也持同样看法,相反大多数尼日利亚青年、肯尼亚青年和塞内加尔青年认为环境状况良好。

这 一 矛 盾 认 识 的 原 因 可 能 部 分 在 于对 环 境 问 题 的 不 了 解 ( 一 半 的 马 达加斯加青年自认为对环境问题的认识差) ; 或者是由于在某些非洲国家,环 境 问 题 与 其 他 问 题 , 特 别 是 社 会经济动乱问题相比,处于次要地位。因此,当向他们问到人类社会所面临的最大威胁有哪些时,全球暖化问题远远排在贫困和饥饿之后,甚至在失业 问 题 (68%的 尼 日 利 亚 青 年 这 样 认为)、流行病(44%的塞内加尔青年这样 认 为 ) 或 艾 滋 病 (48 %的 肯 尼 亚 青年这样认为)之后。

Focus                           聚焦                       Focus                                   Foco

América Latina: proteger a natureza é um dever

Os jovens da América Latina exprimem- se preocupadíssimos com o meio ambiente. Observa-se forte adesão – medida pelas respostas “Concorda totalmente” – à ideia de que “a natureza é sagrada, e protegê-la é nosso dever” por parte dos equatorianos (85%, ou seja, a segunda taxa mais elevada após os marroquinos), dos chilenos (75%), dos mexicanos (73%) e dos brasileiros (72%). Estes jovens, em peso, são igualmente favoráveis à ideia de que  é  preciso  “priorizar  a  proteção ao meio ambiente, mesmo que isso desacelere o desenvolvimento econômico”, como mostram as respostas dos mexicanos (95%), dos brasileiros ou dos chilenos (92%) e dos equatorianos (79%).

Embora a maior parte dos jovens relacione a proteção ao meio ambiente com a luta contra  a poluição,  os  jovens  latino-americanos  frisam  a preservação da biodiversidade (40% dos brasileiros, 33% dos mexicanos e 28% dos equatorianos e dos chilenos citam este  critério em primeiro lugar).

Para os jovens da América Latina, a mudança climática é uma ameaça que pesa não apenas sobre os seus filhos e as gerações futuras, mas também diretamente sobre eles próprios. Este sentimento de perigo iminente é compartilhado por uma maioria de equatorianos (62%), de brasileiros (60%), de mexicanos (56%) e de chilenos (52%).

Apesar do desafio climático, a juventude latino-americana permanece otimista. Para os mexicanos (82%) e para os brasileiros (77%), a mudança climática pode até ser um problema, mas é possível encontrar soluções. Esta confiança mantém-se elevada entre os chilenos (69%) e entre os equatorianos (71%). No entanto, uma minoria significativa das juventudes chilena (21%) e equatoriana (20%) acha que já é tarde demais.

拉丁美洲:保护环境是人们的义务

拉丁美洲青年对环境问题表示强烈的关心 。 通 过 回 答 “ 十 分 同 意 ” 的 人 数 , 我 们 观 察 到 厄 瓜 多 尔 青 年 (85 % , 排第 二 位 , 仅 次 于 摩 洛 哥 )  、 智 利 青 年(75 %)、 墨 西 哥 青 年 (73 % )和 巴 西青年(72% )强烈认同“大自然是神圣的 , 我 们 有 责 任 保 护 大 自 然 ” 这 一 观点。同时,他们中的绝大多数也赞同“ 应 优 先 考 虑 环 境 保 护 , 即 使 这 样 会 减 慢 经 济 发 展 ” , 其 中 95%的 墨 西 哥 青年, 92%的巴西和智利青年, 79%的厄瓜多尔青年持此一态度。

大 多 数 的 年 轻 人 把 保 护 环 境 和 对 抗 污染 联 系 起 来 , 拉 丁 美 洲 的 年 轻 人 更 加重 视 保 护 生 物 多 样 性 ( 40% 的 巴 西 青年, 33 %的墨西哥青年, 28%的厄瓜多尔青年和智利青年把生物多样性放在首位)。

对于拉丁美洲的青年而言,全球暖化不仅是对下一代造成威胁,也直接影响到他们自己。全球暖化危险这一观点被多数的厄瓜多尔青(62%)、 巴西青年 60 %) 、 墨西哥青年(56 %)和智利青年(52 %)认同。

面对气候挑战,拉丁美洲青年还是保持乐观。对于墨西哥青年 (82 %)和 巴 西青年 (77 %), 全 球 暖 化 是 一 个 问 题 , 但 是 有 可 能 找 到 解 决 方 法 。 这 一 信 心在 智 利 青 年 ( 69 %)和 厄 瓜 多 尔 青 年(71 %)中 也 很 高 。 但 是 , 部 分 智 利 青年(21%)和厄瓜多尔年青(20 %)认为现在补救这一问题已经太迟了。

Latin America: protecting nature is our duty

Young people in Latin America express a considerable amount of preoccupation regarding the environment. The vast majority of respondents identify strongly – measured by the “totally agree” responses – with the idea that “nature is sacred and it is our duty to protect it” among Ecuadorians (85%, or the second highest rate after Moroccans), Chileans (75%), Mexicans (73%)  and Brazilians (72%). They are also overwhelmingly in favor of the idea that priority must be given to protecting the environment, even if it slows down economic development as the Mexican (95%), Brazilian and Chilean (92%) and Ecuadorian (79%) responses show. While most young people associate environmental protection with the fight against pollution, Latin American young people tend to emphasize conservation of biodiversity (40% of Brazilians, 33% of Mexicans and 28% of Ecuadorians and Chileans place this criterion first).

For Latin American young people, climate change not only threatens the future generations but also themselves. This sentiment of imminent danger is shared by Ecuadorians (62%), Brazilians (60%), Mexicans (56%)

and Chileans (52%).

Faced with the climate change conundrum, Latin American young people remain nevertheless optimistic. For Mexicans (82%) and Brazilians (77%), even though climate change is a problem there are possible solutions. Confidence in an eventual solution remains high among Chileans (69%) and Ecuadorians (71%). However, a significant minority of Chilean (21%) and Ecuadorian (20%) young people believe that it is too late for anything to be done.

Amérique latine : protéger la nature est un devoir

Les jeunesses d’Amérique latine expriment une forte préoccupation pour l’environnement. On relève une forte adhésion – mesurée par les réponses « tout à fait d’accord » – à l’idée selon laquelle « la nature est sacrée, nous avons le devoir de la protéger » parmi les Équatoriens (85 %, soit le deuxième taux le plus élevé après les Marocains), les Chiliens (75%), les Mexicains (73%) et les Brésiliens (72%). Ils sont également massivement favorables à l’idée qu’il faut « en priorité protéger l’environnement, même si cela ralentit le développement économique », comme le montrent les réponses des Mexicains (95%), des Brésiliens ou des Chiliens (92%) et des Équatoriens (79%).

Tandis que la plupart des jeunesses associent protection

de l’environnement et lutte contre la pollution, la jeunesse latino-américaine met l’accent sur la préservation de la biodiversité (40% des Brésiliens, 33 % des Mexicains et 28% des Équatoriens et des Chiliens citent ce critère en premier).

Pour les jeunes d’Amérique latine, le changement climatique est une menace qui pèse non seulement sur leurs enfants et les générations futures mais aussi directement sur eux-mêmes. Ce sentiment de danger imminent est partagé par une majorité des Équatoriens (62%), des Brésiliens (60%), des Mexicains (56%) et des Chiliens (52%).

Face au défi climatique, la jeunesse latino-américaine reste néanmoins optimiste. Pour les Mexicains (82%) et les Brésiliens (77%), si le changement climatique est un problème, il est possible de trouver des solutions. Cette confiance reste élevée chez les Chiliens (69%) et Équatoriens (71%). Cependant, une forte minorité au sein des jeunesses chilienne (21%) et équatorienne (20%) considère qu’il est déjà trop tard.

The youth of the world expresses a strong feeling of responsibility towards future generations regarding the environment. Almost all of the young people surveyed believe that we must protect nature so that future generations will be able to enjoy the world’s natural heritage. This opinion is  shared  by  more  than  90% of the young people who participated in this survey. This percentage approaches 100% in Indonesia, Chile, China, South Korea and Morocco. The idea of it being our duty to protect nature is met with wide approval: 98% of Chinese young people identify with the statement “nature is sacred and it is our duty to protect it”, along with 97% of Koreans, 96% of Chileans, the French, Moroccans and Mexicans.

Os jovens do mundo inteiro têm um forte sentimento de responsabilidade para com o meio ambiente e as gerações futuras. A quase totalidade deles crê que é preciso proteger a natureza para que a transmitam às gerações futuras. Esta opinião é partilhada por mais de 90 % dos jovens entrevistados. Esta cifra chega perto de 100 % na Indonésia, no Chile, na China, na Coreia do Sul e no Marrocos. A ideia do dever de proteger a natureza também é largamente aprovada: 98 % dos chineses aprovam a afirmação segundo a qual “a natureza é sagrada, e protegê-la é nosso dever”, bem como 97 % dos coreanos, 96 % dos chilenos, dos franceses, dos marroquinos ou dos mexicanos.

La jeunesse du monde éprouve un fort sentiment de responsabilité envers l’environnement et les générations futures. La quasi-totalité de la jeunesse mondiale estime qu’il faut protéger la nature afin de pouvoir la transmettre aux générations futures. Cette opinion est partagée par plus de 90% des jeunes interrogés. On approche les 100% en Indonésie, au Chili, en Chine, en Corée du Sud et au Maroc. L’idée d’un devoir de protection de la nature suscite également une large approbation : 98% des Chinois approuvent l’affirmation selon laquelle « la nature est sacrée, nous avons le devoir de la protéger », de même que 97% des Coréens, 96% des Chiliens, des Français, des Marocains ou des Mexicains

全球青年对环境和下一代都具有非常强烈的责任感。全球几乎所有的青年都认为应该保护自然,以便把大自然传承给下一代。 90 %以上接受调查的青年人都同意这一观点。在印度尼西亚 、 智 利 、 中 国 、 韩 国 和 摩 洛 哥 , 这 一 比 例 几 乎 达 到 100 %。 有 责 任 保护大自然这一观点受到 98 %的中国青年 , 97 %的 韩 国 人 , 96 %的 智 利 、 法国、摩洛哥和墨西哥青年的同意,他们都同意“大自然是神圣的,我们有责任保护大自然”。

La jeunesse du monde approuve très majoritairement l’idée qu’il est possible d’associer progrès matériel et protection de l’environnement : c’est le cas notamment des Mexicains (95%) et des Indonésiens (94%). Si les Coréens sont relativement les moins convaincus, leur niveau d’adhésion reste très élevé (75%).

Majoritariamente os jovens do mundo inteiro aprovam a ideia segundo a qual é possível associar progresso material e proteção ao meio ambiente: é o caso sobretudo dos mexicanos (95%) e dos indonésios (94%). O nível de adesão dos coreanos é bastante elevado (75%), embora eles estejam relativamente menos convencidos.

Toutefois, invitée à choisir entre le développement économique et la protection de l’environnement, la jeunesse tranche majoritairement en faveur de l’écologie, même au prix d’un ralentissement économique. À titre d’illustration, 95% des Mexicains, 94% des Marocains, 93% des Chinois, 92% des Chiliens, des Indonésiens ou des Brésiliens privilégient l’environnement par rapport au développement économique. Fait marquant, moins d’un tiers des jeunes Américains (30%) affirment qu’il faut en priorité favoriser le développement économique même si cela nuit à l’environnement. Ce chiffre pourrait témoigner d’un progrès de la préoccupation environnementale aux États-Unis.

No entanto, convidados a escolher entre o desenvolvimento econômico e a proteção ao meio ambiente, os jovens optam majoritariamente pela ecologia, ainda que à custa de uma desaceleração econômica. A título de ilustração, 95% dos mexicanos, 94% dos marroquinos, 93% dos chineses e 92% dos chilenos, dos indonésios ou dos brasileiros priorizam o meio ambiente, não o desenvolvimento econômico. Vale notar que menos de um terço dos jovens americanos (30%) afirma que a prioridade é favorecer o desenvolvimento econômico ainda que isto resulte em danos ao meio ambiente. Esta cifra pode ser sinal de progresso no que diz respeito à preocupação com o meio ambiente nos Estados Unidos.

然而,当被邀请在发展经济和保护环境二者中做出选择时,大多数的年轻人认为应优先考虑环境保护,即使这样会减慢经济发展。比如, 95 %的墨西哥青年、 94 %的摩洛哥青年、 93 % 的 中 国 青 年 、 9 2 % 的 智 利 、 印 度 尼西 亚 和 巴 西 青 年 认 为 环 境 优 先 于 经济发展。引人注意的是,约三分之一(30 %)的美国青年认为应优先考虑经济发展,即使这样会对环境造成负面影响。这一数据可能可以证明美国在环境保护重视的加强。

However, when asked to choose between economic development and environmental protection, young people primarily tend to side in favor of the ecosystem. As an example, 95% of Mexicans, 94% of Moroccans, 93% of Chinese young people, and 92% of Chileans, Brazilians and Indonesians tend to  place  their priorities on environmental protection over economic development. An important point to note is that less than one-third of American young people (30%) indicate their  interest  in  promoting economic development if this would mean harming the environment. This figure could be seen as confirming an increase in the importance of environmental issues in the United States.

Signe de son haut degré de préoccupation, la jeunesse mondiale juge acceptable de contraindre les gens à protéger l’environnement. Le niveau d’adhésion à cette option est particulièrement élevé parmi les Italiens, les Indonésiens et les Marocains (88% dans les trois pays), les Mexicains (87%) et les Espagnols (85%). La jeunesse japonaise fait exception (46%).

À la question de savoir quelles sont les meilleures solutions pour satisfaire les besoins énergétiques mondiaux, les jeunes plébiscitent le développement des énergies renouvelables. L’économie d’énergie et la réduction de la consommation constituent la deuxième solution la plus populaire. Les jeunesses russe et marocaine se distinguent en plaçant l’invention de nouvelles sources d’énergie immédiatement après les énergies renouvelables.

Soucieux de l’état de la nature et confiants quant au rôle du progrès dans sa protection, les jeunes semblent opter moins pour une décroissance que pour une croissance verte. C’est pour eux une manière de combiner leur soutien à la croissance économique et leur exigence d’une protection de l’environnement.

 

Como sinal de seu alto grau de preocupação, a juventude mundial acredita que é aceitável forçar as pessoas a proteger o meio ambiente. O nível de adesão a esta opção é particularmente elevado entre os italianos, os indonésios e os marroquinos (88% nesses três países), os mexicanos (87%) e os espanhóis (85%). Os jovens japoneses são a exceção (46%).

Inquiridos sobre quais são as melhores soluções para satisfazer as necessidades energéticas mundiais, os jovens mostram-se a favor do desenvolvimento de energias renováveis. A economia de energia e a redução do seu consumo constituem a segunda solução mais popular. Os jovens russos e os marroquinos distinguem-se por colocarem a invenção de novas fontes de energia imediatamente depois das energias renováveis.

Preocupados com a situação da natureza e confiantes no papel que o progresso desempenha na sua proteção, os jovens parecem optar menos pela desaceleração econômica do que pelo crescimento verde. Para eles é uma maneira de conciliar apoio ao crescimento econômico e exigência de proteção ao meio ambiente.

作为高度重视的一种表现,全球的青年认为强迫人们保护环境是可以接受的。同意这一观点的人数在意大利、印度尼西亚和摩洛哥(在这三个国家中达 88 % )、墨西哥(87 %)和西班牙青年(85 %)中特别高。 日本青年是一个例外(46 %)。

当被问到满足全球能源需要的最好方法是什么时,青年们都把票投给了发展可再生能源。排第二位的是节省能源、降低能源消耗。俄罗斯和摩洛哥青年较为特别,他们把发明新能源排在再生能源之后。

担心大自然的状况,同时又对保护大自然抱有信心,青年们看起来更倾向于绿色增长而不是负增长。对于他们来说,这是一个能兼顾经济增长和保护环境二重要求的途径。

A sign attesting to the high degree of environmental sensitivity, the world’s youth believes that forcing people to respect the environment is an acceptable practice. The percentage of young people who subscribe to this belief is particularly high among Italians, Indonesians and Moroccans (88% in each of the three countries), Mexicans (87%) and Spaniards (85%). Japanese young people deviate from this trend (46%).

In response to the question of what are the best solutions to meet global energy requirements, young people are overwhelmingly in favor of further development of renewable energy sources. Efficient energy practices and reduction in consumption is the second most favored response. Russian and Moroccan  young  people distinguish themselves by putting  a  premium on inventing new energy sources directly after the use of renewable energy sources.

Ever conscious of the state of the natural habitat and confident regarding the role progress will play, young people seem to favor green growth rather than economic slow-down. For them, this is a way to combine their support for economic growth with their demands for environmental protection.

On questions regarding the relationship between nature and humanity’s material development, all of the young  people place their priority on environmental protection. However, a relatively significant proportion of Nigerians  (40%) and Kenyans (30%) feel that economic development should have priority even if this is harmful to the environment. This opinion is less likely to be shared by Malagasy (24%), Senegalese (18%) and Ecuadorian (16%) young people.

It should be noted that young Kenyans (55%) and young Ecuadorians (53%) strongly support  the reduction of energy consumption as the most efficient means to meet world energy demands, while other youthful populations   are more likely to opt for the development of renewable energy sources.

就有关自然和人类物质发展的关系问题上,所有的青年都优先考虑保护环境。然而,相当一定数量的尼日利亚青年(40 %)和肯尼亚青年(30 %)认为鼓励经济发展应获优先考虑,即使这样会对环境做成负面影响;持这一观点的青年的比例在马达加斯加(24 %)、 塞内加尔(18 %)和厄瓜多尔(16 %)青年中更小。我们注意到,肯尼亚青年(55 %)和厄瓜多尔青年( 5 3 % )认为降低能源消耗是满足全球能源需要的最有效方法,而全球其他青年多认为这一方法应该是发展可再生能源。

西欧:环保活动积极分子 南欧的青年人以严肃的态度看待全球暖化威胁。 42 %的法国青年和西班牙青年,以及 41 %的意大利青年感觉自己受到全球变暖的威胁,而只有 15 % 的挪威青年,17%的芬兰青年和 21 % 的瑞典青年这样认为。

忧 心 于 环 境 状 况 , 南 欧 的 青 年 却 不信 任 一 般 人 能 保 护 自 然 ( 这 一 怀 疑态度在西班牙青年中占 53 %,意大利63 % , 法国 69 %); 他们也不信任国家 保 护 自 然 的 工 作 (82 %的 西 班 牙 青年 , 79 %的 法 国 青 年 , 78 %的 意 大 利青年)。

可能是因为对社会和国家的不信任, 绝大多数的南欧青年同意强迫人们保护 环 境 ( 85 %的 西 班 牙 青 年 、 82 %的法国青年和 88 %的意大利青年这样认为 , 相 反 只 有 63%的 德 国 青 年 持 相 同观点)。同样,南欧青年更加信任国际组织。 56 %的西班牙青年, 53%的法国青年和 57 %的意大利青年表示对联合国保护大自然所做的工作有信心。在 这 三 个 国 家 中 , 几 乎 所 有 的 青 年(93 %)都接受一个全球性的环保组织有权力检查他们国家的环保情况。

Europeus do Sul: militantes pelo meio ambiente

Os jovens da Europa do Sul levam a sério a ameaça climática. De fato, 42% dos franceses e dos espanhóis, bem como 41% dos italianos, sentem-se eles próprios ameaçados pela mudança climática, contra apenas 15% dos noruegueses, 17% dos finlandeses ou 21% dos suecos.

Preocupados com a situação do meio ambiente, os jovens da Europa do Sul declaram, porém, que não confiam que as pessoas em geral venham a proteger a natureza, cepticismo este revelado por 53% dos espanhóis, 63% dos italianos e 69% dos franceses. Neste respeito, tampouco confiam no Estado 82% dos espanhóis, 79% dos franceses e 78% dos italianos.

Talvez seja por causa dessa falta de confiança na sociedade e no Estado que os jovens da Europa do Sul são favoráveis, em peso, à ideia de forçar as pessoas a proteger o meio ambiente, conforme o que pensam 85 %  dos  espanhóis, 82% dos franceses e 88 % dos italianos, contra 63% dos alemães por exemplo. Além disso, os jovens da Europa do Sul tendem muito mais a confiar em instituições supranacionais. De fato, 56% dos espanhóis, 53% dos franceses e 57% dos italianos declaram confiar na ONU no que concerne à preservação da natureza. Por fim, em cada um desses três países, quase todos os jovens (93%) aceitam que um órgão ambiental global especializado possa inspecionar a proteção ao meio ambiente nos seus respectivos países.

Southern Europeans: environmental champions

Southern European young people take climate change seriously. Indeed, 42% of the French and Spaniards as well as 41% of Italians feel as though they themselves are threatened by climate change compared with only 15% of Norwegians, 17% of Finns and 21% of Swedes.

Increasingly worried about environmental conditions, Southern European young people declare that they do not, however, trust people in general to protect the environment (this skepticism being expressed by 53% of Spaniards, 63% of Italians and 69% of French young people). They do not place any more trust in the state in these matters  (82% of Spaniards, 79% of the French and 78% of Italians).

This societal and governmental distrust may be the reason why Southern European young people are overwhelmingly in favor of forcing people to respect the environment (which 85% of Spaniards, 82% of French young people and 88% of Italians think versus 63% of Germans, for example). Furthermore, Southern European young people tend to place more trust in international institutions. Indeed, 56% of Spanish, 53% of French and 57% of Italian young people claim to trust the U.N. for nature conservation. Finally, in each of these three countries almost all of the young people surveyed (93%) react favorably to an international institution specialized in environmental matters being able to verify the effectiveness of the environmental protection measures in place in their countries.

Cidades: quais serviços são essenciais?

Para a pergunta sobre quais serviços as cidades devem oferecer prioritariamente aos seus habitantes, água potável e habitação foram os dois mais comumente citados. Não surpreende a constatação de que o primeiro serviço da lista seja água potável na maioria dos casos. Os franceses, os israelenses, os russos, os marroquinos, os chineses e os nigerianos colocam habitação antes de água potável. Energia é citada pela maioria dos japoneses e por grande parte de alemães, de turcos, de coreanos e de americanos. Por outro lado é grande a quantidade de italianos, de indonésios e de indianos que consideram o tratamento do lixo como um serviço que as cidades deveriam assegurar prioritariamente.

Cities: what will be the essential services of the future?

In response to the question of which services a city should offer as a priority to its inhabitants, drinking water and housing are the two most frequently quoted services. It should not be surprising to find that the first thing people think of is drinking water in a majority of instances. However, the French, Israelis, Russians, Moroccans, the Chinese and Nigerians place housing ahead of drinking water. Energy is mentioned by the majority of Japanese respondents and a large portion of Germans, Turks, Koreans and Americans. Finally, a large number of Italians, Indonesians and Indians consider waste processing to be the most important service that a city should provide.

城市:哪一个是主要服务?

在关于城市应首先向其居民提供何类服务这一问题上,饮用水和住房被最多提及。饮用水在绝大多数国家都排在第一位,这并不让人惊讶。法国、以色列、俄罗斯、摩洛哥、中国和尼日利亚青年把住房放在饮用水之前。大多数日本青年和相当数量的德国青年、土耳其青年、韩国青年和美国青年都提到了能源。相反,相当数量的意大利、印度尼西亚和印度青年把废物处理问题放在城市应向其居民提供的服务之首位。

Ville : quels services essentiels ?

À la question de savoir quels sont les services qu’une ville doit offrir en priorité à ses habitants, l’eau potable et le logement constituent les deux services le plus souvent cités. Il n’est pas surprenant de constater que l’eau potable arrive en tête dans la majorité des cas. Les Français, les Israéliens, les Russes, les Marocains, les Chinois et les Nigérians placent le logement devant l’eau potable. L’énergie est citée par la majorité des Japonais et par une large partie des Allemands, des Turcs, des Coréens et des Américains. En revanche, les Italiens, les Indonésiens et les Indiens sont particulièrement nombreux à considérer le traitement des déchets comme un service que la ville devrait assurer en priorité.

 

大多数青年认为,比起发展中国家, 环境恶化的主要责任在发达国家:对工业发达国家提出质疑的主要是西班牙和智利青年(87 %)。 持这一观点的在 美 国 青 年 (63 %)和 俄 罗 斯 青 年 中 69 %)也占多数, 虽然其比例相对较低。

对于多数青年,环境恶化对世界所有国家的影响是一样的。然而, 62 %的南非青年、 54 %的摩洛哥和土耳其青年、以及 51%的挪威青年、 48 %的英国青 年 和 47%的 瑞 典 青 年 认 为 贫 穷 国 家受到更直接的影响.

A majority of young people impute the degradation of the environment to developed countries rather than to developing countries: the percentage of young people most likely to blame industrialized nations is highest among Spaniards and Chileans (87%). This opinion is shared by the majority of young people, though to a lesser extent, in the United States (63%) and Russia (69%).

Most young people feel that environmental degradation affects all countries in the same way. However, 62% of South Africans, 54% of Moroccans and Turks as well as 51% of Norwegians, 48% of the British and 47% of Swedes believe that developing countries are the most directly affected.

A maioria dos jovens imputa a responsabilidade pela degradação do meio ambiente mais aos países desenvolvidos do que aos países em desenvolvimento: os que em maior número responsabilizam os países industrializados são os espanhóis e os chilenos (87%). Esta opção    é igualmente dominante, ainda que menos significativamente, entre os jovens americanos (63%) e entre os russos (69%).

Para a maior parte dos jovens, a degradação do meio ambiente atinge todos os países da mesma maneira. No entanto, 62% de sul-africanos, 54% de marroquinos ou de turcos, bem como 51 % de noruegueses, 48% de britânicos e 47% de suecos, creem que os países mais pobres são os mais diretamente atingidos.

La majorité des jeunes impute la responsabilité de la dégradation de l’environnement aux pays développés plutôt qu’aux pays en développement : les plus nombreux à mettre en cause les pays industrialisés sont les Espagnols et les Chiliens (87%). Cette opinion est également dominante, bien qu’à un niveau moindre, parmi les jeunesses américaine (63%) et russe (69%).

Pour la plupart des jeunes, la dégradation de l’environnement affecte tous les pays de la même manière. Cependant, 62% des Sud-Africains, 54% des Marocains ou des Turcs, ainsi que 51 % des Norvégiens, 48% des Britanniques et 47% des Suédois pensent que les pays les plus pauvres sont les plus directement touchés.

É verdade que a grande maioria dos jovens  vê na globalização uma oportunidade para o desenvolvimento dos países mais pobres, mas as opiniões são mais divergentes quanto ao seu potencial de impacto sobre o meio ambiente. Assim, para inúmeros chilenos (60%) e franceses (71%), a mundialização é uma ameaça para o meio ambiente. É preciso notar, porém, que já em outros países os jovens consideram a globalização como uma oportunidade que permite proteger a natureza mais eficazmente. É o que se dá, por exemplo, no caso de 80 % dos indonésios.

Though  the  vast  majority   of   young   people   see  in globalization an opportunity for the economic development of emerging economies, opinions are more divided with respect to its potential environmental impact. As such, many Chilean (60%) and French respondents (71%) believe that  globalization  represents a threat to the world’s ecosystems.  However, it should be noted that in other countries, young people see globalization as an opportunity to improve environmental protection. This is the case, for example, for 80% of Indonesians.

Les résultats de notre enquête montrent que les jeunes savent adopter une approche planétaire de l’environnement. Ainsi, une majorité d’entre eux rejette l’idée selon laquelle « chaque pays est propriétairedesonhéritagenaturelet[qu’] il estlibre de l’utiliser comme il le veut ». Le rejet de cette idée est particulièrement net chez les Japonais (82%), les Espagnols (83%) ou les Brésiliens (81 %). Font exception les Russes (63%), les Américains (53%) et les Indiens (52%), qui estiment au contraire que chaque pays est propriétaire de son héritage naturel et qu’il demeure libre de l’utiliser comme il le souhaite.

Lorsqu’il s’agit de savoir comment assurer la préservation de l’environnement, dans la mesure où cet enjeu dépasse les frontières nationales, les différences socioculturelles ou les disparités économiques et financières, les jeunes semblent davantage faire confiance à des institutions internationales (Nations Unies), à des acteurs de la société civile (les ONG) ou aux scientifiques.

La plupart des jeunes sont ainsi favorables à ce qu’une institution mondiale spécialisée dans les questions environnementales puisse vérifier l’état de la protection de l’environnement dans chaque pays. Le soutien à cette idée dépasse les deux tiers en Norvège (67%) et confine à l’unanimité au Chili (96%), au Mexique (97%) et en Indonésie (97%).

Os resultados desta enquete mostram que os jovens sabem adotar uma postura planetária no que concerne o meio ambiente. Assim, a maioria deles rejeita a ideia segundo a qual “cada país tem sua própria herança natural e pode usá-la como quiser”. A rejeição desta ideia é notavelmente clara entre os japoneses (82%), os espanhóis (83%) ou os brasileiros  (81%). A exceção são os russos (63 %), os americanos (53%) e os indianos (52%), que estimam, contrariamente, que cada país é  proprietário da sua herança natural e que permanece livre para utilisá-la como desejar.

Quanto a saber como assegurar a preservação do meio ambiente, levando-se em conta que esta questão extrapola fronteiras nacionais, diferenças socioculturais ou disparidades econômicas e financeiras, os jovens parecem confiar bem mais em instituições internacionais (Nações Unidas), em atores da sociedade civil (ONGs) ou nos cientistas.

Portanto, a maior parte dos jovens é favorável a que um órgão ambiental global especializado possa inspecionar a proteção ao meio ambiente em cada país. O apoio a esta ideia passa de dois terços na Noruega (67%) e beira a unanimidade no Chile (96%), no México (97%) e na Indonésia (97%).

我们的调查结果显示,年轻人能用全球视角来看待环境问题。大多数青年不同意“每个国家都拥有其自然遗产,可以自由地按其意愿使用”这一观点。对这一观点持反对态度的人在日本(82 %)、 西班牙(83 %)和巴西青年(81 %)中尤为突出。相反,俄罗斯(63 %)、 美国(53 %)和印度(52 %)的大多数青年认为每个国家都拥有其自然遗产,可以自由地按其意愿使用。

当被问到,在影响超出国界以及在不同的社会文化和经济金融的条件下,如何确保对环境的保护,青年人似乎更加信任国际组织(联合国)、非政府组织或科学家。

大多数青年也赞成国际专业环保组织有权力检查各国的环保情况。三分之二的挪威青年(67 %)、 以及几乎所有的智利(96 %)、 墨西哥(97 %)和印度尼西亚(97 %)青年都同意这一观点。

 

The results of our survey show that young people are able to adopt a planetary approach to the environment. Indeed, a majority of young people patently reject the idea that “each country owns its natural heritage and is free to use it   as it wants”. The Japanese, the Spanish and Brazilians are particularly loath to accept this idea and the rejection rate among them is very high (82%, 83% and 81% respectively). The exceptions to this line of thought are the Russians (63%), Americans (53%) and Indians (52%), who believe that, on the contrary, each country does indeed own its natural heritage and is free to use it as it deems fit.

When asked how to best conserve the environment, insofar as the issue does go beyond national borders, socio- cultural differences or economic and financial disparities, young people appear to be more trusting of international institutions (UN), civil society players (NGOs) and scientists.

Most young people would be favorable to the proposition of an international institution specialized in environmental matters being able to verify the effectiveness of the environmental  protection  measures  in each country.  Support for this idea exceeds two-thirds in Norway (67%) and is almost unanimous in Chile (96%), Mexico (97%) and Indonesia (97%).

Como no caso dos jovens nos países em que a enquete foi realizada via internet, os jovens entrevistados face a face consideram a mundialização mais como oportunidade do que como ameaça. É o caso de 88% dos nigerianos, 81% dos senegaleses, 66% dos malgaches e 52% dos equatorianos. Os jovens desses países também veem na globalização uma oportunidade para acelerar o desenvolvimento dos países pobres, mas igualmente para proteger o meio ambiente de forma mais eficaz. A juventude queniana está mais dividida: 43% dos quenianos veem a mundialização como oportunidade; 34% a veem como ameaça; e os demais (quase um quarto) dizem não saber responder a essas perguntas.

Por fim, no Equador, os entrevistados consideram majoritariamente (56%) a globalização como ameaça ao meio ambiente, o que os aproxima dos jovens chilenos, entrevistados via internet, os quais também expressam reservas quanto a esta questão (60%).

 

Tout comme les jeunes des pays où l’enquête a été administrée par Internet, les jeunesses interrogées en face-à-face considèrent la mondialisation comme une opportunité plutôt qu’une menace. C’est le cas de 88 % des Nigérians, 81% des Sénégalais, 66% des Malgaches et 52% des Équatoriens. De même, les jeunes de ces pays voient dans la globalisation une opportunité pour accélérer le développement des pays pauvres, mais aussi pour mieux protéger l’environnement. La jeunesse kényane est plus partagée : 43% des Kényans regardent la mondialisation comme une opportunité, 34% comme une menace, alors que près d’un quart des jeunes de ce pays déclarent ne pas savoir répondre à ces questions.

Enfin, en Équateur, les répondants considèrent majoritairement (56%) la globalisation comme une menace pour l’environnement, ce qui les rapproche des jeunes Chiliens, interrogés via Internet, eux aussi formulant leurs réserves à ce sujet (60%).

 

同 参 与 网 上 问 卷 调 查 国 家 的 青 年 一 样 , 参 与 面 对 面 调 查 的 青 年 也 赞 同 全 球 化所 代 表 的 更 多 是 机 会 而 非 威 胁 , 如 88 %的 尼 日 利 亚 青 年 、 81 %的 塞 内 加 尔 青年、 66 %的马达加斯加青年和 52 %的厄瓜多尔青年。同样,这些国家的青年人把全球化看作既是贫穷国家发展经济的机遇,也是更好地保护大自然的一个机遇。 看法不统一的主要是肯尼亚青年: 43 %的肯尼亚青年认为全球化是一个机遇, 34 %认为是威胁,另外四分之一的肯尼亚青年则认为对此问题不知道如何回答。

最后,在接受调查的在厄瓜多尔青年中,多数人(56 %)把全球化看作对环境的威胁,这一比例接近通过网络回答问卷的智利青年,他们对这一问题也持保留意见(60 %)。

Les Scandinaves optimistes

De manière surprenante, les Scandinaves font partie des jeunesses les moins préoccupées par l’état de l’environnement. Certes, ils n’en nient pas la dégradation, mais une partie relativement importante ne redoute le réchauffement climatique ni pour elle-même ni pour les générations futures (c’est le cas de 26% des Norvégiens, 24% des Finlandais et 17% des Suédois, contre seulement 11% des Canadiens ou 4% des Coréens). Ces résultats peuvent relever moins d’un écoscepticisme croissant que de l’optimisme qui caractérise le regard que les jeunes Scandinaves portent sur l’avenir de la planète.

Ainsi 83% des Norvégiens, 82% des Suédois et 80% des Finlandais considèrent la mondialisation comme une opportunité. Ils voient même la globalisation comme une opportunité pour protéger l’environnement (70% des Norvégiens, 59% des Suédois et 52% des Finlandais, contre 44% des Allemands et 43% des Espagnols). Seuls 9% des Finlandais et des Norvégiens, et 10% des Suédois considèrent qu’il est déjà trop tard pour remédier au problème du réchauffement climatique, alors que 20% des Allemands et 21% des Français partagent cette vision pessimiste. Les Nordiques expriment massivement leur confiance dans le rôle positif de la science dans la résolution des problèmes environnementaux. Seuls 9% des Finlandais et des Suédois, ainsi que 6% des Norvégiens (contre 21% des jeunes en France et au Japon) estiment que la science constitue un danger pour l’environnement.

Enfin, l’état de la nature dans les pays scandinaves peut également contribuer à leur optimisme : 91% des Finlandais, 75% des Suédois et 71% des Norvégiens jugent bon l’état de l’environnement dans leur pays. Ce n’est le cas que de 23% des Espagnols, 30% des Italiens, ou 49% des Américains.

 

Escandinavos otimistas

Surpreendentemente, os escandinavos fazem parte dos jovens menos preocupados com a situação do meio ambiente. É verdade que não ignoram sua degradação, mas uma parte relativamente importante deles não teme o aquecimento global nem por si próprios nem pelas gerações futuras (como é o caso de 26% dos noruegueses, 24% dos finlandeses e 17% dos suecos, contra somente 11% dos canadenses ou 4% dos coreanos). Estes resultados podem ser indício menos de um crescente ecocepticismo do que do otimismo que caracteriza a visão que os jovens escandinavos têm do futuro do planeta.

Assim, 83% dos noruegueses, 82% dos suecos e 80% dos finlandeses consideram a mundialização como oportunidade. Chegam mesmo a considerá-la como oportunidade para proteger o meio ambiente (70% dos noruegueses, 59% dos suecos e 52% dos finlandeses, contra 44% dos alemães e 43% dos espanhóis). Apenas 9% dos finlandeses e dos noruegueses e 10% dos suecos consideram que já é tarde demais para remediar o problema do aquecimento global. Partilham do mesmo pessimismo 20% dos alemães e 21% dos franceses. Os nórdicos exprimem em peso sua confiança no papel positivo da ciência na resolução dos problemas ambientais. Apenas 9% dos finlandeses e dos suecos e 6% dos noruegueses (contra 21% dos jovens na França e no Japão) estimam que a ciência constitui um perigo para o meio ambiente.

Por fim, a situação da natureza nos países escandinavos pode igualmente contribuir para seu otimismo: 91% dos finlandeses, 75% dos suecos e 71% dos noruegueses consideram boa a situação do meio ambiente nos seus respectivos países. Este é o caso de não mais do que apenas 23% dos espanhóis, 30% dos italianos ou 49% dos americanos.

 

Optimistic Scandinavians

More surprisingly perhaps, Scandinavian young people are among the least concerned about the environment. To be  sure, they do not deny worsening conditions, but a significant proportion do not fear global warming, either as it may affect them or future generations (as is the case for 26% of Norwegians, 24% of Finns and 17% of Swedes compared    to merely 11% of Canadians and 4% of Koreans). These results may reveal less of growing eco-skepticism and more of optimism that is characteristic of Scandinavian young people’s perception of the planet’s future.

As such 83% of Norwegians, 82% of Swedes and 80% of Finns believe that globalization is an opportunity. They even go so far as to view globalization as an opportunity for environmental protection (70% of Norwegians, 59% of Swedes and 52% of Finns, versus 44% of Germans and 43% of Spaniards).

Les femmes en faveur d’un consensus mondial

Pour les jeunes la protection de l’environnement passe par le multilatéralisme, mais parmi eux, ce sont les femmes plus que les hommes qui le plébiscitent. Pour les jeunes femmes, le patrimoine naturel est un bien collectif qu’une institution supranationale doit préserver.

De fait, les femmes sont moins enclines que les hommes à penser que chaque pays est propriétaire de son patrimoine naturel et qu’il est donc libre d’en faire ce qu’il souhaite. La majorité des Suédois (56%) considère que leur pays peut disposer de son patrimoine naturel comme bon lui semble, alors que les Suédoises sont une minorité (41%) à partager cette opinion. De même, en Norvège, 53% des hommes et 30% des femmes seulement accordent aux États le droit de décider de leur héritage naturel. 43% des Turcs sont d’avis que leur pays est seul propriétaire de son patrimoine naturel, contre seulement 27% des Turques. Au total, ce constat est généralisable pour 21 des 25 pays interrogés online. De même, dans de nombreux pays, les femmes sont plus favorables que les hommes à ce qu’une institution internationale spécialisée dans les questions environnementales puisse vérifier l’état de la protection de l’environnement dans chaque pays. Par exemple, 86% des Japonaises soutiennent l’existence d’une telle institution contre 77% des Japonais. En Pologne, 90% des femmes y sont favorables alors que les hommes ne l’approuvent qu’à 72%.

Women in favor of a global consensus

Young people consider environmental protection to be a multilateral issue, but among them women are more likely than men to champion this cause. For young women, the natural heritage belongs to all of us and should be protected by an international institution.

As such, women are less inclined than men to believe that each country owns its natural heritage outright and is free to use it as it wants. Most Swedish men (56%) believe that their country may use its natural resources however it pleases while only a minority of Swedish women (41%) shares this opinion. Similarly, in Norway 53% of men  and only 30% of women believe that states should have the right to decide the fate of their natural heritage. 43% of Turkish men believe that their country is the sole owner of its natural heritage, compared with only 27% of Turkish women. In all, this general trend holds true in 21 of the 25 countries that took part in the online survey.

Much in the same vein, in many countries women are more likely to be in favor of an international institution specialized in environmental matters being able to verify the effectiveness of the environmental protection measures in each country. For example, 86% of Japanese women support such an institution whereas only 77% of Japanese men are of the same opinion. In Poland, 90% of women approve of this proposition versus 72% of men.

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