While the main commercial partners of the European Union adopt non-cooperative strategies, inaction or lack of firm policy would be fatal for the single market. The European Union should lead a coalition willing to bring about an ambitious reform of the World Trade Organization (WTO) but it will take, at best, several years for this endeavour to succeed. In the meantime, we make concrete proposals to strengthen our trade defence capabilities in order to better protect our economic interests and gain credibility on the international stage.

This study was written by Emmanuel Combe, Professor at the University of Paris-1 and Professor at Skema Business School and Vice-President of the Competition Authority*, Paul-Adrien Hyppolite, Corps des Mines engineer and graduate of the École normale supérieure*, and Antoine Michon, Corps des Mines engineer and graduate of the École Polytechnique*.

* The authors of this study are responsible for its content, which does not hold responsible the institutions for which they work. This document is a translation of the French version published in November 2019.